A small randomized controlled trial of testosterone therapy saw beneficial changes after six months, but failed to observe expected changes in biological markers:
Low testosterone levels in aging men are associated with insulin resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in glycogen metabolism, and lipid accumulation are linked to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of six-month testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and strength training (ST) on mitochondrial, glycogen, and lipid droplet (LD) content in skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels. In this exploratory small-scale study, the beneficial effects of six-month TRT on total testosterone, LBM, and percent body fat were not followed by significant changes in fractions of mitochondria, glycogen, or lipid in skeletal muscle of aging men with lowered testosterone levels. Six-month ST or combined three-month ST+TRT did not change intramyocellular mitochondria, glycogen, and LD fractions compared to placebo. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed.