Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies
Magnesium is an essential mineral found in many foods; rich sources include whole grains, green leafy vegetables, coffee, and legumes. Magnesium is a critical cofactor in >300 enzymatic reactions, including those related to energy metabolism (1). Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies suggests that diets higher in magnesium are associated with reduced risk of insulin resistance (2–8) and type 2 diabetes (9, 10), whereas in intervention studies, supplemental magnesium improves measures of glucose and insulin metabolism in generally healthy adults (11, 12), as well as in those with insulin resistance (13, 14) and type 2 diabetes (15, 16). However, little is known about potential interaction between magnesium intake and genetic variability on glycemic traits, in which genetic variants related to either magnesium transport and homeostasis or glucose and insulin metabolism may modify the pathways through which magnesium exerts its effects.