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    • Latest Update on Metformin





      Since the discovery of Metformin (way back in 1922), the medication has become one of the most vital medications in the world. The WHO has included it in its List of Essential Medicines among other drugs used to provide basic healthcare, and it is currently the most widely used oral diabetes medication.

      But what Jean Sterne, its creator, might not have realized is that Metformin can offer A LOT of amazing health benefits beyond just the treatment of diabetes! Here are just a few of the amazing things Metformin can do to keep you in the prime of health:

      Protect the Thyroid Gland

      It’s a well-known fact that insulin resistance (the precursor to diabetes) can lower the size and function of the thyroid gland. Even pre-diabetics may suffer from reduced thyroid function, including low levels of both T3 and T4 thyroid hormones.

      A 2014 study in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences examined the effects of Metformin on thyroid function. 89 prediabetics between the ages of 18 and 65 participated in the study, and received either a placebo or Metformin for 3 months. To determine the effects of the drug, the scientists measured TSH levels, as well as measuring thyroid nodules and volume.

      The primary difference between the two groups was discovered in the thyroid enlargement effects. Not only did the placebo group have a higher rate of enlargement, but 54% of them developed thyroid nodules. Among the Metformin group, small solid nodules decreased by almost 50% (from 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml).

      While TSH levels did decrease slightly (for those with serum TSH >2.5 μU/ml), the medications proved effective at protecting the thyroid gland and reducing the size of nodules.

      Improve Testosterone and Semen

      Men with metabolic syndrome usually tend to have a higher body fat percentage, which has been linked to lower testosterone levels. Low T often leads to a reduction in sperm production, count, and quality.

      One study looked at the effects of Metformin on both testosterone levels and sperm count and quality. 45 men between the ages of 26 and 44 participated in the study. All of them underwent metabolic and hormone profiling, along with an evaluation of their BMI, triglyceride levels, and waist circumference.

      Metformin did NOT affect their body composition, nor did it affect free testosterone levels. However, the treatment did lead to an increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in plasma SHBG levels. Total testosterone levels also increased as a result of the Metformin treatment, and the quality and quantity of sperm increased as well.

      Increases the Effects of TRT

      While studies have examined the effects of Metformin, no research has analyzed what happened when it was combined with testosterone therapy. Until 2015, when a group of researchers gathered 30 men with both late-onset hypogonadism and impaired glucose tolerance.

      The men all underwent 12 weeks of Metformin treatment, with only half of them receiving testosterone (in the form of 120 mg of oral testosterone undecanoate per day). The effects of the treatment were significant:

      - Total and LDL cholesterol levels decreased
      - Uric acid production dropped
      - hsCRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels decreased
      - Insulin sensitivity improved
      - Plasma glucose and triglyceride levels decreased
      - Plasma testosterone increased

      While Metformin alone did provide some benefits, the combination of androgen therapy and Metformin significantly increased the effects of the treatment. Men suffering from impaired glucose tolerance and/or late-onset hypogonadism should consider the combined treatment in order to see more visible results.

      Prevent or Reduce Aging

      Age comes to all men! The human body begins to decline by our mid-30s, and the decline can become serious as the decades advance. While there is no way to “turn back the clock” for real, there are a few things that can help to prevent or reduce the effects of aging.

      Scientists are planning to use Metformin as part of a program designed to “target” or “tame” aging. One study found that diabetics who took Metformin lived longer than those who took another diabetes drug. More noticeably, those who were significantly older (70s+) had a lower diabetes mortality risk when taking Metformin. Another study found that taking Metformin could help to stave off diabetes even among high-risk patients, especially when the treatment was combined with healthy lifestyle changes.

      Metformin targets chemicals that are produced by senescent cells—essentially cells that have stopped working properly (dividing) and have begun to release toxins that damage the cells around them.

      These senescent cells are common among those with age-related chronic disease, such as those suffering from excessive arterial plaque or Alzheimer’s. By reducing the toxin output of these senescent cells, there is a possibility metformin could help to reduce the effects of aging. The drug also increases AMP kinase, an enzyme that tends to decline as you grow older. It may help to decrease mTOR, a protein that is responsible for cellular growth.

      The combination of these effects makes Metformin a potential treatment to reduce the effects of aging. It won’t make us live forever, but it could slow down the advance of the years.

      Increase Fat-Burning among HIV Positive People

      People suffering from HIV often suffer from lipodystrophy, a combination of insulin resistance and fat redistribution. This means that HIV can lead to metabolic disturbances that further impair the health of the infected.

      In a study posted in the Journal of the American Medical Association, patients who received Metformin for 3 months not only showed between insulin control, but their weight and blood pressure decreased as well. They also lost belly fat, but without an increase in liver transaminase or lactate levels. Even a low dose of metformin can help to improve cardiovascular health, reduce metabolic disturbances, and increase fat burning among HIV-infected patients.

      This article was originally published in forum thread: Latest Update on Metformin
      Comments 46 Comments
      1. tjlab's Avatar
        tjlab -
        Awesome! What is your dose? Are you taking ER or regular?
      1. audiogeek247's Avatar
        audiogeek247 -
        I take normal 500mg twice daily with food
      1. Leesto's Avatar
        Leesto -
        I am on 1000 mg twice daily. I don't have any trouble taking it without food but some people report digestive discomfort - especially when starting out or when increasing their dosage.

        I also take an herb called Berberine (500 mg twice daily), which has very similar effects to Metformin.

        The reason I take these is type II diabetes, but gosh, given the favorable studies about Metformin I'm glad I'm on it.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        I have lost weight and 0.5 inch waist size on 500 mg (breakfast and dinner) after 2 months. I have not modified my diet or exercise program. My sporadic issues with bloat are gone.

        Several of the medications I take cause insulin resistance. I think Metformin has improved my insulin sensitivity and decreased my spikes.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Metformin May Also Lower LDL Cholesterol: Study Suggests How

        Metformin, which has been used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes for more than 50 years, appears to also lower LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by a complex mechanism, according to new research.

        In a study published online August 5 in Diabetes Care, Dr Tao Xu, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, in Neuherberg, Germany, and colleagues describe how they analyzed levels of 131 serum metabolites as well as genomic data in three large cohorts of participants with treated or untreated type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

        They found that patients who were taking metformin had lower levels of three metabolites and LDL cholesterol, senior author Dr Rui Wang-Sattler, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen and the German Center for Diabetes Research, told Medscape Medical News.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        PLoS One. 2016; 11(1): e0145719.
        Published online 2016 Jan 25. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145719
        PMCID: PMC4726568

        Effect of Metformin Treatment on Lipoprotein Subfractions in Non-Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) Trial

        Ruben N. Eppinga,1 Minke H. T. Hartman,1 Dirk J. van Veldhuisen,1 Chris P. H. Lexis,1 Margery A. Connelly,2 Erik Lipsic,1 Iwan C. C. van der Horst,3 Pim van der Harst,1,* and Robin P. F. Dullaart4
        Giacomo Frati, Editor

        1University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands
        2LabCorp, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
        3University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Critical Care, Groningen, the Netherlands
        4University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Endocrinology, Groningen, the Netherlands
        Sapienza University of Rome, ITALY
        Competing Interests: The authors of this manuscript have read the journal's policy and have the following competing interests: MAC, PhD is an employee of LabCorp (Raleigh, North Carolina, USA), however this does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.




        Abstract

        Objective

        Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions 4 months after ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Second, we assessed associations of lipoprotein subfractions with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size 4 months after STEMI.

        Methods

        371 participants without known diabetes participating in the GIPS-III trial, a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial studying the effect of metformin (500 mg bid) during 4 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI were included of whom 317 completed follow-up (clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT01217307). Lipoprotein subfractions were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at presentation, 24 hours and 4 months after STEMI. (Apo)lipoprotein measures were obtained during acute STEMI and 4 months post-STEMI. LVEF and infarct size were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

        Results

        Metformin treatment slightly decreased LDL cholesterol levels (adjusted P = 0.01), whereas apoB remained unchanged. Large LDL particles and LDL size were also decreased after metformin treatment (adjusted P<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, increased small HDL particles at 24 hours after STEMI predicted higher LVEF (P = 0.005). In addition, increased medium-sized VLDL particles at the same time point predicted a smaller infarct size (P<0.001).

        Conclusion

        LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles were decreased during 4 months treatment with metformin started early after MI. Higher small HDL and medium VLDL particle concentrations are associated with favorable LVEF and infarct size.
      1. Vince's Avatar
        Vince -
        Quote Originally Posted by Nelson Vergel View Post
        Metformin May Also Lower LDL Cholesterol: Study Suggests How


        Metformin, which has been used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes for more than 50 years, appears to also lower LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by a complex mechanism, according to new research.

        In a study published online August 5 in Diabetes Care, Dr Tao Xu, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, in Neuherberg, Germany, and colleagues describe how they analyzed levels of 131 serum metabolites as well as genomic data in three large cohorts of participants with treated or untreated type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

        They found that patients who were taking metformin had lower levels of three metabolites and LDL cholesterol, senior author Dr Rui Wang-Sattler, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen and the German Center for Diabetes Research, told Medscape Medical News.

        this was probably the main reason why I started using metformin, there are so many health benefits to metformin
        https://www.excelmale.com/showthread...rt-Clinic-Labs
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Consider Metformin in Patients with These Comorbidities

        Ann Intern Med; ePub 2017 Jan 3; Crowley, et al

        January 20, 2017

        Using metformin in patients with diabetes and moderate chronic kidney or liver disease, or heart failure, is linked with improved outcomes, according to a systematic review involving 17 observational studies.

        Investigators looked at studies that 1) examined adults with type 2 diabetes and CKD (chronic kidney failure), CHF (chronic heart failure), or CLD (chronic liver disease) with hepatic impairment; 2) compared treatments that did and did not include metformin; and 3) analyzed all-cause mortality, adverse CV events, and other outcomes. Among the results:

        Metformin led to a reduction in all-cause mortality in patients with CKD, CHF, or CLD with hepatic impairment.
        It also caused fewer heart failure readmissions in patients with CKD or CHF.

        The authors concluded that their findings support changes made recently in metformin labeling.

        http://www.mdedge.com/clinicalendocr..._ClinicalEdge=
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Metformin improves metabolic profile in adults without diabetes on glucocorticoids

        “Our results indicate that metformin prevents deterioration of glucose metabolism if treatment is timed with initiation of glucocorticoids,” the researchers wrote. “This study provides the basis for metformin as a preventive treatment in patients newly receiving glucocorticoid therapy. Further studies are needed to test if occurrence of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes can be reduced, and if metformin has similar beneficial effects in patients with continuous glucocorticoid treatment.”

        http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/...inology%20news
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Beyond diabetes, metformin may prove to be a ‘wonder drug’

        New research is suggesting that metformin may hold promise in treating or preventing a whole host of conditions in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. Studies show metformin may be cardioprotective in patients with diabetes and beneficial in the presence of stable congestive heart failure. The agent also may help to increase pregnancy rate in polycystic ovary syndrome, provide breast and prostate cancer benefits, and offer neuroprotection that may reduce dementia and stroke risk, Akiyode said.


        Nir Barzilai, MD, is exploring whether metformin can target and delay aging, to decrease the incidence of age-related diseases in general, rather than merely decrease the incidence of diabetes. Photo courtesy of Albert Einstein College of Medicine printed with permission.
        Nir Barzilai, MD, an endocrinologist and director of the Institute for Aging Research at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, said he hopes to work with the FDA to conduct an NIH/American Federation for Aging Research metformin trial later this year — Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) — that will demonstrate the agent’s ability to delay the onset of comorbidities related to aging, thereby reducing the period of morbidity at the end of life.

        “If metformin can target and delay aging, its administration should be associated with fewer age-related diseases in general, rather than merely the decreased incidence of a single disease,” Barzilai and colleagues wrote in a study published in the June 2016 issue of Cell Metabolism. “Data from several randomized clinical trials and multiple observational studies provide evidence for such an effect, which would not be expected from glucose lowering alone.”

        Endocrine Today spoke with experts who discussed the latest research demonstrating the nondiabetic benefits of metformin and the theories behind possible mechanisms.

        Metformin’s history, mechanism

        The use of what would eventually become metformin dates to the Middle Ages, when herbalists first derived extracts from Galega officinais, a plant known alternatively as French lilac, false indigo and Spanish sainfoin, to treat frequent urination. The plant’s active ingredient — guanidine — was first isolated in the 1800s and later synthesized as the less-toxic metformin. The drug was approved in France and the United Kingdom in 1957 and 1958, respectively, but it would be another 37 years before the FDA would approve the agent for use in the United States.

        Despite the initial resistance to the drug, the FDA has been more open recently to considering studies that could examine other indications for metformin, through trials like TAME.

        “The FDA has shown increasing flexibility in recent years with regard to metformin, surprisingly so, considering its original position back in the 1980s when it vowed never to approve the drug,” Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE, chief medical editor of Endocrine Today, said in an interview. “It was a surprisingly firm position, not necessarily grounded in observational science, but was related to the rather startling toxicity of [the drug’s] cousin, phenformin.” Phenformin was withdrawn from most markets in the late 1970s because of a high risk for lactic acidosis in patients.

        More here
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        I stopped Metformin last week. I kept losing weight even as I ate the same amounts of food. Lost 18 pounds (muscle and fat) in 3 months. I want to regain some muscle again!

        May 15, 2017 Update:

        I restarted Metformin a month ago since I missed how well my gut felt on it. I decided to stay on it for life.
      1. Leesto's Avatar
        Leesto -
        Quote Originally Posted by Nelson Vergel View Post
        I stopped Metformin last week. I kept losing weight even as I ate the same amounts of food. Lost 18 pounds (muscle and fat) in 3 months. I want to regain some muscle again!
        Sorry to hear that Nelson but thanks for the information. That's a lot of weight to lose in 3 months!
      1. Speed's Avatar
        Speed -
        Is there any update about "TAME" study ? Is it in progress. I can't find the info online.
      1. Vince's Avatar
        Vince -
        Dr. Nir Barzilai on the TAME Study March 2015 Newsletter

        Healthspan Campaign partner the Albert Einstein College of Medicine was recently featured in The Wall Street Journal about a groundbreaking new study called Targeting/Taming Aging With Metformin, or TAME. We had the chance to speak with Nir Barzilai, M.D., director, Institute for Aging Research, Einstein College of Medicine, and, scientific co-director, the American Federation for Aging Research, to learn more about it.http://www.healthspancampaign.org/20...he-tame-study/
      1. IronSmith's Avatar
        IronSmith -
        Quote Originally Posted by Nelson Vergel View Post
        I stopped Metformin last week. I kept losing weight even as I ate the same amounts of food. Lost 18 pounds (muscle and fat) in 3 months. I want to regain some muscle again!
        I experienced similar weight loss taking 500mg twice daily about two years ago, really had to increase protein and fat intake to pick the weight and lean mass back up.

        Non GMO chicken eggs have been a big help for me, added them to a much more robust breakfast routine than I had previously ever eaten I find the boost of healthy unsaturated fats and antioxidants added the balance I needed with minimal calorie increases.

        Pretty easy on the digestive tract to, so you're getting a big helping of vitamins and minerals along with it the GI tract isn't using up. I actually resorted to raising my own birds to get the eggs and it's been a lot of fun you learn quickly that the quality and quantity of eggs falls right in line with the quality of feed you provide them.

        Wife brought these in this morning, we are watching two layers for friends while they are away for the weekend our egg is on the left.
        Attachment 3291
      1. rhino5169's Avatar
        rhino5169 -
        Are you raising pterodactyls!?

        I wish I was like you guys. When I take metformin my hunger skyrockets and I eat like a freaking rhinocerous.
      1. IronSmith's Avatar
        IronSmith -
        Quote Originally Posted by rhino5169 View Post
        Are you raising pterodactyls!?

        I wish I was like you guys. When I take metformin my hunger skyrockets and I eat like a freaking rhinocerous.
        No, in fact we have Isa Brown Hens that are quite a bit smaller than a typical heirloom breed like a Rhode Island Red or similar.

        They are hybrid hens bred to lay an egg every single day, 10 of them keeps the whole extended family and neighbors stocked up with a never ending supply and were fortunate to have a feed mill close by that blends their own in house non GMO layer feed at a very good price compared to bagged feed.

        Costs me about 18.00 a month in feed plus another $5.00-$10.00 for supplements and bedding for 23 dozen extra large brown eggs, the local farmers market people get anywhere from $6-$8.00 dollars a dozen for non GMO brown eggs so it's well worth doing.
      1. raulman554's Avatar
        raulman554 -
        You have been reading that metformin is being taken for problems of hormonal origin
      1. ratbag's Avatar
        ratbag -
        I'm still somewhat suspicious about metformin although I take 1000mg daily because of type 2 diabetes. The good news on metformin and statins never ends. I can't help but feel that big pharma is behind all this never ending great news on both these drugs and this is what big pharma does. If big pharma had it their way everyone would be taking them daily.

        Ive been on metformin for 5 years and I too suffered from gastro discomfort etc. So I started taking it when I went to bed and nearly all the symptoms disappeared.
      1. PedroZuñiga's Avatar
        PedroZuñiga -
        Same! idk why