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    • Latest Update on Metformin





      Since the discovery of Metformin (way back in 1922), the medication has become one of the most vital medications in the world. The WHO has included it in its List of Essential Medicines among other drugs used to provide basic healthcare, and it is currently the most widely used oral diabetes medication.

      But what Jean Sterne, its creator, might not have realized is that Metformin can offer A LOT of amazing health benefits beyond just the treatment of diabetes! Here are just a few of the amazing things Metformin can do to keep you in the prime of health:

      Protect the Thyroid Gland

      It’s a well-known fact that insulin resistance (the precursor to diabetes) can lower the size and function of the thyroid gland. Even pre-diabetics may suffer from reduced thyroid function, including low levels of both T3 and T4 thyroid hormones.

      A 2014 study in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences examined the effects of Metformin on thyroid function. 89 prediabetics between the ages of 18 and 65 participated in the study, and received either a placebo or Metformin for 3 months. To determine the effects of the drug, the scientists measured TSH levels, as well as measuring thyroid nodules and volume.

      The primary difference between the two groups was discovered in the thyroid enlargement effects. Not only did the placebo group have a higher rate of enlargement, but 54% of them developed thyroid nodules. Among the Metformin group, small solid nodules decreased by almost 50% (from 0.07 ml to 0.04 ml).

      While TSH levels did decrease slightly (for those with serum TSH >2.5 μU/ml), the medications proved effective at protecting the thyroid gland and reducing the size of nodules.

      Improve Testosterone and Semen

      Men with metabolic syndrome usually tend to have a higher body fat percentage, which has been linked to lower testosterone levels. Low T often leads to a reduction in sperm production, count, and quality.

      One study looked at the effects of Metformin on both testosterone levels and sperm count and quality. 45 men between the ages of 26 and 44 participated in the study. All of them underwent metabolic and hormone profiling, along with an evaluation of their BMI, triglyceride levels, and waist circumference.

      Metformin did NOT affect their body composition, nor did it affect free testosterone levels. However, the treatment did lead to an increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in plasma SHBG levels. Total testosterone levels also increased as a result of the Metformin treatment, and the quality and quantity of sperm increased as well.

      Increases the Effects of TRT

      While studies have examined the effects of Metformin, no research has analyzed what happened when it was combined with testosterone therapy. Until 2015, when a group of researchers gathered 30 men with both late-onset hypogonadism and impaired glucose tolerance.

      The men all underwent 12 weeks of Metformin treatment, with only half of them receiving testosterone (in the form of 120 mg of oral testosterone undecanoate per day). The effects of the treatment were significant:

      - Total and LDL cholesterol levels decreased
      - Uric acid production dropped
      - hsCRP, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels decreased
      - Insulin sensitivity improved
      - Plasma glucose and triglyceride levels decreased
      - Plasma testosterone increased

      While Metformin alone did provide some benefits, the combination of androgen therapy and Metformin significantly increased the effects of the treatment. Men suffering from impaired glucose tolerance and/or late-onset hypogonadism should consider the combined treatment in order to see more visible results.

      Prevent or Reduce Aging

      Age comes to all men! The human body begins to decline by our mid-30s, and the decline can become serious as the decades advance. While there is no way to “turn back the clock” for real, there are a few things that can help to prevent or reduce the effects of aging.

      Scientists are planning to use Metformin as part of a program designed to “target” or “tame” aging. One study found that diabetics who took Metformin lived longer than those who took another diabetes drug. More noticeably, those who were significantly older (70s+) had a lower diabetes mortality risk when taking Metformin. Another study found that taking Metformin could help to stave off diabetes even among high-risk patients, especially when the treatment was combined with healthy lifestyle changes.

      Metformin targets chemicals that are produced by senescent cells—essentially cells that have stopped working properly (dividing) and have begun to release toxins that damage the cells around them.

      These senescent cells are common among those with age-related chronic disease, such as those suffering from excessive arterial plaque or Alzheimer’s. By reducing the toxin output of these senescent cells, there is a possibility metformin could help to reduce the effects of aging. The drug also increases AMP kinase, an enzyme that tends to decline as you grow older. It may help to decrease mTOR, a protein that is responsible for cellular growth.

      The combination of these effects makes Metformin a potential treatment to reduce the effects of aging. It won’t make us live forever, but it could slow down the advance of the years.

      Increase Fat-Burning among HIV Positive People

      People suffering from HIV often suffer from lipodystrophy, a combination of insulin resistance and fat redistribution. This means that HIV can lead to metabolic disturbances that further impair the health of the infected.

      In a study posted in the Journal of the American Medical Association, patients who received Metformin for 3 months not only showed between insulin control, but their weight and blood pressure decreased as well. They also lost belly fat, but without an increase in liver transaminase or lactate levels. Even a low dose of metformin can help to improve cardiovascular health, reduce metabolic disturbances, and increase fat burning among HIV-infected patients.

      This article was originally published in forum thread: Latest Update on Metformin
      Comments 29 Comments
      1. tjlab's Avatar
        tjlab -
        Awesome! What is your dose? Are you taking ER or regular?
      1. audiogeek247's Avatar
        audiogeek247 -
        I take normal 500mg twice daily with food
      1. Leesto's Avatar
        Leesto -
        I am on 1000 mg twice daily. I don't have any trouble taking it without food but some people report digestive discomfort - especially when starting out or when increasing their dosage.

        I also take an herb called Berberine (500 mg twice daily), which has very similar effects to Metformin.

        The reason I take these is type II diabetes, but gosh, given the favorable studies about Metformin I'm glad I'm on it.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        I have lost weight and 0.5 inch waist size on 500 mg (breakfast and dinner) after 2 months. I have not modified my diet or exercise program. My sporadic issues with bloat are gone.

        Several of the medications I take cause insulin resistance. I think Metformin has improved my insulin sensitivity and decreased my spikes.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Metformin May Also Lower LDL Cholesterol: Study Suggests How

        Metformin, which has been used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes for more than 50 years, appears to also lower LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by a complex mechanism, according to new research.

        In a study published online August 5 in Diabetes Care, Dr Tao Xu, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, in Neuherberg, Germany, and colleagues describe how they analyzed levels of 131 serum metabolites as well as genomic data in three large cohorts of participants with treated or untreated type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

        They found that patients who were taking metformin had lower levels of three metabolites and LDL cholesterol, senior author Dr Rui Wang-Sattler, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen and the German Center for Diabetes Research, told Medscape Medical News.
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        PLoS One. 2016; 11(1): e0145719.
        Published online 2016 Jan 25. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145719
        PMCID: PMC4726568

        Effect of Metformin Treatment on Lipoprotein Subfractions in Non-Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Glycometabolic Intervention as Adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) Trial

        Ruben N. Eppinga,1 Minke H. T. Hartman,1 Dirk J. van Veldhuisen,1 Chris P. H. Lexis,1 Margery A. Connelly,2 Erik Lipsic,1 Iwan C. C. van der Horst,3 Pim van der Harst,1,* and Robin P. F. Dullaart4
        Giacomo Frati, Editor

        1University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands
        2LabCorp, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America
        3University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Critical Care, Groningen, the Netherlands
        4University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Department of Endocrinology, Groningen, the Netherlands
        Sapienza University of Rome, ITALY
        Competing Interests: The authors of this manuscript have read the journal's policy and have the following competing interests: MAC, PhD is an employee of LabCorp (Raleigh, North Carolina, USA), however this does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.




        Abstract

        Objective

        Metformin affects low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density (HDL) subfractions in the context of impaired glucose tolerance, but its effects in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are unknown. We determined whether metformin administration affects lipoprotein subfractions 4 months after ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). Second, we assessed associations of lipoprotein subfractions with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size 4 months after STEMI.

        Methods

        371 participants without known diabetes participating in the GIPS-III trial, a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized trial studying the effect of metformin (500 mg bid) during 4 months after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI were included of whom 317 completed follow-up (clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT01217307). Lipoprotein subfractions were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at presentation, 24 hours and 4 months after STEMI. (Apo)lipoprotein measures were obtained during acute STEMI and 4 months post-STEMI. LVEF and infarct size were measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

        Results

        Metformin treatment slightly decreased LDL cholesterol levels (adjusted P = 0.01), whereas apoB remained unchanged. Large LDL particles and LDL size were also decreased after metformin treatment (adjusted P<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, increased small HDL particles at 24 hours after STEMI predicted higher LVEF (P = 0.005). In addition, increased medium-sized VLDL particles at the same time point predicted a smaller infarct size (P<0.001).

        Conclusion

        LDL cholesterol and large LDL particles were decreased during 4 months treatment with metformin started early after MI. Higher small HDL and medium VLDL particle concentrations are associated with favorable LVEF and infarct size.
      1. Vince's Avatar
        Vince -
        Quote Originally Posted by Nelson Vergel View Post
        Metformin May Also Lower LDL Cholesterol: Study Suggests How


        Metformin, which has been used to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes for more than 50 years, appears to also lower LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by a complex mechanism, according to new research.

        In a study published online August 5 in Diabetes Care, Dr Tao Xu, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, in Neuherberg, Germany, and colleagues describe how they analyzed levels of 131 serum metabolites as well as genomic data in three large cohorts of participants with treated or untreated type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

        They found that patients who were taking metformin had lower levels of three metabolites and LDL cholesterol, senior author Dr Rui Wang-Sattler, from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen and the German Center for Diabetes Research, told Medscape Medical News.

        this was probably the main reason why I started using metformin, there are so many health benefits to metformin
        https://www.excelmale.com/showthread...rt-Clinic-Labs
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Consider Metformin in Patients with These Comorbidities

        Ann Intern Med; ePub 2017 Jan 3; Crowley, et al

        January 20, 2017

        Using metformin in patients with diabetes and moderate chronic kidney or liver disease, or heart failure, is linked with improved outcomes, according to a systematic review involving 17 observational studies.

        Investigators looked at studies that 1) examined adults with type 2 diabetes and CKD (chronic kidney failure), CHF (chronic heart failure), or CLD (chronic liver disease) with hepatic impairment; 2) compared treatments that did and did not include metformin; and 3) analyzed all-cause mortality, adverse CV events, and other outcomes. Among the results:

        Metformin led to a reduction in all-cause mortality in patients with CKD, CHF, or CLD with hepatic impairment.
        It also caused fewer heart failure readmissions in patients with CKD or CHF.

        The authors concluded that their findings support changes made recently in metformin labeling.

        http://www.mdedge.com/clinicalendocr..._ClinicalEdge=
      1. Nelson Vergel's Avatar
        Nelson Vergel -
        Metformin improves metabolic profile in adults without diabetes on glucocorticoids

        “Our results indicate that metformin prevents deterioration of glucose metabolism if treatment is timed with initiation of glucocorticoids,” the researchers wrote. “This study provides the basis for metformin as a preventive treatment in patients newly receiving glucocorticoid therapy. Further studies are needed to test if occurrence of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes can be reduced, and if metformin has similar beneficial effects in patients with continuous glucocorticoid treatment.”

        http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/...inology%20news