Apo E 3/4''''s and 4/4''''s can''t remove mercury from their brains. So they get alzheimers ?


Thread starter #1
Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) is composed of 299 amino acids and transports lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol into the lymph system and then into the blood. It is synthesized principally in the liver, but has also been found in other tissues such as the brain, kidneys, and spleen. In the nervous system, non-neuronal cell types, most notably astroglia and mocroglia, are the primary producers of ApoE, while neurons preferentially express the receptors for ApoE. There are seven currently identified mammalian receptors for ApoE which belong to the evolutionarily conserved low density lipoprotein receptor gene family.
People with harmful forms of the ApoE gene (genotype 3/4, 4/4) have up to 12 times the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease compared with those who have other variations (2/2, 2/3, 3/3) of the gene. For years, researchers have thought that the ApoE gene increased Alzheimer's risk by producing a protein that binds to amyloid beta. Scientists thought that this bond could make it easier for plaques to form.

Recent research indicates that ApoE does not appear to bind to amyloid beta, but to a receptor in astrocytes. "Studies by other researchers have shown that astrocytes can degrade amyloid beta," Dr. Verghese said. "The receptor we identified may be important for getting amyloid beta into the astrocyte so it can be broken down. It's possible that when the harmful forms of ApoE bind to the receptor, this reduces the opportunities for amyloid to be degraded." The researchers are planning follow-up studies of the effects of ApoE-blocking treatments in mice.

Another role of ApoE is in the removal of mercury from the biosystem. ApoE 2 codes for cysteine at amino acid positions 112 and 158, whereas, ApoE 3 codes for a cysteine at position 112, but an arginine at position 158. ApoE 4 codes for an arginine at both positions 112 and 158. Cysteine binds mercury, arginine does not. Therefore, the best genotype for removing mercury via this system is an ApoE 2/2 (4 cysteine residues), vs. an ApoE 3/3 (the highest incidence in the human population, 2 cysteine residues and 2 arginine residues), vs. the worst ApoE 4/4 (4 arginines and no mercury removing capability).

Apolipoprotein-E genotyping has been investigated as an indicator of susceptibility to heavy metal neurotoxicity



Thread starter #2
APO E 4 codes for an arginine at both positions 112 and 158. Cysteine binds mercury, arginine does not. Therefore, the best genotype for removing mercury via this system is an ApoE 2/2 (4 cysteine residues), vs. an ApoE 3/3 (the highest incidence in the human population, 2 cysteine residues and 2 arginine residues), vs. the worst ApoE 4/4 (4 arginines and no mercury removing capability).

APO E 4/4 has none since they only have arginine receptors and no cysteine receptors and in theory can't remove mercury from their brain's.

Possibly if metallothionein-3 can be increased in the brain an APO E 4/4. The APO E 4/4 could remove mercury from the brain. I assume the same is true for copper in the brain and other heavy metals also in the brain. I will look at MCT oil and ketones and see if their is a way to bind mercury in an APO E 4/4 brain.
The Alzheimer's Connection

Alzheimer's disease features a tremendous increase in oxidative stress to the brain. Research has found strong associations between mercury poisoning and Alzheimer's. Rats exposed to mercury develop the identical biochemical brain imbalances as Alzheimer's in humans (4).
A 2013 study from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has found that copper toxicity plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease development. According to the head of the study, Rashid Dean, PhD: “It is clear that, over time, copper's cumulative effect is to impair the systems by which amyloid beta is removed from the brain."
While copper is an essential nutrient, it becomes a powerfully reactive toxin when free and unbound. Now get this: A very important feature of metallothionein is to bind to copper. MT rapidly binds to copper and also enhances its utilization. However, if the copper is free and unbound, you have a situation of powerful free radical toxicity that ensues.
In Alzheimer's disease, studies have shown that metallothionein-3 (the form of MT expressed in the brain) is significantly decreased. The expression of MT proteins in Alzheimer's is 1/3rd that of normal brains.
Do we have a working theory here? Metallothionein, a powerful cysteine-rich, zinc-powered antioxidant, is protective of brain cells, binds to a variety of toxic metals, including mercury and copper (zinc and copper are also antagonistic), the toxicity of which are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease. A deficiency of metallothionein leads to an inability to scavenge toxic mercury, cadmium, copper and other metals. Metals accumulate in tissues. End of story? Nope.
APOE4 Gene Mutations & Metallothionein

APOE4 gene mutations are considered a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. APOE (apoloprotein E) are mediators of cholesterol metabolism. According to research, carriers of APOE4 double mutations have 10-30X higher risk of developing Alzheimer's. However, these projections don't always play out in reality. At current estimates, 1/3rd of Alzheimer's patients don't have APOE4 mutations.
Most of the recent research on APOE4 has centered around the accumulation of oxidized cholesterol in the brain, contributing to the build-up of beta amyloid plaque. However, there is dissenting opinions as to whether the cholesterol theory of Alzheimer's has merit. Stephanie, Seneff, PhD, an MIT scientist has reason to believe based upon literature that statins, (cholesterol-lowering drugs) actually cause Alzheimer's.
University of Kentucky retired chemist Boyd Hayley, PhD has been very vocal on APOE4 mutations and Alzheimer's. He believes that carriers of APOE4 mutations are susceptible to Alzheimer's because of APOE4's "lack of a cysteine" amino acid, and consequently, the inability for APOE4 (a "housekeeping, protective protein") to scavenge mercury from the brain. Whereas APOE2 bears cysteine, and is considered protective of mercury.
Remember that cysteine is a critically important sulfur-bearing amino acid in glutathione synthesis, as well as in metallothionein synthesis.
Amazingly, recent research directly links APOE-3 and APOE-4 gene mutations with a decreased expression of metallothionein!
Pay close attention to future research that explores the relationship between APOE and metallothionein, as well as therapies that may help to promote the synthesis and expression of important antioxidants like MT.
Metallothionein Promotion Therapy

Preliminary trials are underway. The man leading the charge in the realm of metallothionein promotion therapy is William J. Walsh, Phd. A longtime research scientist of brain biochemistry and advanced nutrient therapies, Dr. Walsh has reported very positive initial success with metallothionein nutrient therapy among an Alzheimer's group.
There is no doubt that future research in this field is needed critically. Bringing attention and recognition to metallothionein as an important, functional antioxidant is highly warranted.



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Pretty interesting Vince, Alzheimer's is some scary stuff, and the part about the MIT Dr. thinking that statins help cause Alzheimers ? I've always thought they were bad news


Thread starter #4
Vitamin K and Alzheimer's Disease http://www.marcusrohrerspirulina.com/files/6513/0026/2670/Vitamin_K_and_Alzheimers_Disease.pdf
Times New Roman]An increasing body of evidence points to a role for vitamin K in brain physiology
through its participation in sphingolipid metabolism and biological activation of
the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. One hypothesis is that vitamin K may also
play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. A recent study found that
patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin K than did
cognitively intact control subjects. To learn more about the dietary intakes and
food sources of vitamin K in these patients, a detailed analysis was conducted.
Dietary vitamin K intakes were assessed from 5 nonconsecutive days of food
records collected from 31 community-dwelling patients with early-stage
Alzheimer's disease and in 31 age- and sex-matched cognitively intact control
subjects. Mean vitamin K intake on a person-day basis was 63+/-90 microg/day in
patients and 139+/-233 microg/day in control subjects. Vitamin K intakes were
significantly less in participants with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.0001), even after
adjusting for energy intakes (P=0.0003). Vegetables, fats, and fruits contributed
more than 70% of total vitamin K intake in both groups. The main source of
vitamin K was green vegetables, which contributed 33% and 49% to total intakes
in patients and control subjects, respectively. This lower consumption of green
vegetables in participants with Alzheimer's disease explained their lower vitamin
K intakes overall. Despite their limitations, results are in line with the most recent
research in both vitamin K and Alzheimer's disease and suggest a need to consider
vitamin K in future investigations on the role of diet in Alzheime


Thread starter #5
What is the vitamin K?
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is most well-known for the important role it plays in blood clotting. However, vitamin K is also absolutely essential to build strong bones and prevent heart disease, and it plays a crucial role in other bodily functions other than blood clotting.

In fact, vitamin K is sometimes referred to as "the forgotten vitamin" because its major benefits are often overlooked. Following are 10 important facts about vitamin K that will help you to discover why vitamin K is one supplement you may need.

1. There are Three Types of Vitamin K--Which is Best?

Vitamin K1, or phylloquinone, is found naturally in plants and vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, is made by the bacteria that line the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin K3, or menadione, is a synthetic form that is manmade, and which I do not recommend. It's important to note that toxicity has occurred in infants given this synthetic vitamin K3 by injection.

The vitamin K that I recommend is vitamin K1, which is natural and not toxic at even 500 times the RDA. Vitamin K2, which is made in your body and also produced by fermented foods, is also a superior form of vitamin K.

2. Vitamin K Prevents Arterial Plaque & Heart Disease

Vitamin K helps to prevent hardening of the arteries, which is a common factor in coronary artery disease and heart failure. Research suggests that vitamin K may help to keep calcium out of artery linings and other body tissues, where it can be damaging.

3. Build Strong Bones, Prevent Osteoporosis

Vitamin K is one of the most important nutritional interventions for improving bone density. It serves as the biological "glue" that helps plug the calcium into the bone matrix.

According to recent studies:

Vitamin K was recently compared to a first-generation biphosphonate drug called Didronel in 72 osteoporotic women for two years and there was no difference found in the bone fracture rates between women taking vitamin K and women taking the biphosphonate drug for osteoporosis.
Other recent studies have shown vitamin K to be equivalent to Fosamax-type osteoporosis drugs.
4. Fight Cancer

Studies have shown that vitamins K1 and K2 are effective against cancer. For instance, one study published in the September 2003 International Journal of Oncology, found that treating lung cancer patients with vitamin K2 slowed the growth of cancer cells, and previous studies have shown benefit in treating leukemia.

Further, a number of human trials have demonstrated the anticancer effects of vitamin K1. In a study published in the August 2003 Alternative Medicine Review, of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, a type of liver cancer, who took oral vitamin K1, the disease stabilized in six patients, seven patients had a partial response, seven others had improved liver function and in 15 patients the abnormal prothrombin normalized.

5. Additional Health Benefits

As written in the March 2004 Life Extension magazine, researchers have found many other beneficial effects of vitamin K including:

Vitamin K deficiency may be a contributing factor to Alzheimer's disease, and vitamin K supplementation may help to fight this disease
Topical vitamin K may help to reduce bruising
Vitamin K deficiency may interfere with insulin release and blood sugar regulation in ways similar to diabetes
Vitamin K may have antioxidant properties
6. Vitamin K is a Fat-Soluble Vitamin

This is important because dietary fat is necessary for the absorption of this vitamin. This means that in order for you body to absorb it effectively, you need to eat some fat along with it. One easy way to do this is by adding the liquid vitamin K drops I recommend directly into your fish oil or cod liver oil. This will ensure that the vitamin K is well-absorbed by your body (plus you'll be getting beneficial omega-3 from the fish oil!). Alternatively, you could add it to any other food that contains fat.

7. Food Sources of Vitamin K

Fermented foods, such as natto, typically have the highest concentration of vitamin K found in the human diet and can provide several milligrams of vitamin K2 on a daily basis. This level far exceeds the amount found in dark green vegetables. Unfortunately, most Americans do not eat many fermented foods.

Adding traditionally fermented foods to your diet is a must, and, although not widely known, the health benefits of these foods are tremendous. We will very shortly be introducing a simple and inexpensive way in which you can ferment your own foods to radically improve your source of beneficial bacteria and vitamin K2.

Vince, thank for your enlightening focus on "vitamin K" and it's various forms. Tons of contradictory statements out there. For example this one from Sports Research which is "10xbetter absorbed than K1:


It's menaquinone-7 derived from chickpea.

Hard to conclude if this is worth purchasing over something else. is the MK-7 derived from natto any better?

Koncentrated K sounds great but $45 for 60 caps? Who can afford that?

L.E. Super K with Advanced K2 90 caps $18 is Amazon's #1 seller.

What's the best bang for the buck?
Vince, Are you saying that you would not recommend either of the two I posted above? If so why not?

The sports research K3 MK-7 sale price is $5/month supply in 60 cap bottle. How is that any better or worse than the L.E. 1-1/2 month supply for $18?

I believe I can get enough K1 from food sources.
Thread starter #11
I believe if you become a member of life extension, which I am not. They give you a deal on vitamins and supplements.
o.k. one menaquinone-7 is as good as the next. Or not. Some buy expensive name brands like Jarrow for no other reason than misplaced confidence. Unless there is an assay or proof of higher grade it's pretty much hit or miss. With certain products it is well known that source material is important. Can't find anything about chickpea derived MK4 vs annatto derived or a study on the best ratio of the various forms of K. The guy who advocates Koncentrate K presents anecdotal only.
Thread starter #13
o.k. one menaquinone-7 is as good as the next. Or not. Some buy expensive name brands like Jarrow for no other reason than misplaced confidence. Unless there is an assay or proof of higher grade it's pretty much hit or miss. With certain products it is well known that source material is important. Can't find anything about chickpea derived MK4 vs annatto derived or a study on the best ratio of the various forms of K. The guy who advocates Koncentrate K presents anecdotal only.
Yes I understand what you're saying, but I do believe his story. He is a lawyer that lives in Michigan. His family does have a strong medical background. Surgeon, doctors and RN's, what he believes may not work for everyone. "He believes it".
Costco was running a vitamin and supplement promotion last week when I was there. No Vit K and the magnesium was jut the oxide. I purchased two powders instead. "GREEN SUPERFOOD" by AMAZING GRASS and "WHEAT GRASS JUICE POWDER 100% Organic by FRESH ON DEMAND.

Don't ask me why. Likely it was the $ off promotion and the money back guarantee.

An 8g serving (45 per container) of AG has:
70mcg or 88% DV of "K"
1,200 IU 25% DV of beta carotene
minor amounts of a few other things

It has an impressive list of "family farm grown organic ingredients". Claims to offer phytonutrients, digestive enzymes, probiotics. wheat and barley grass, alfalfa, spinach, spirulina, chlorella rose hips, pineapple, carrot,acerola, green tea, acai, maca. Little to no excipients.

You could treat your pet cow or horse to this stuff guilt free.

The other product by F.O.D is 100% organic wheatgrass and dehydrated at less than 106 F. this puppy provides 120% dv of K in only 3g with 98 servings in the container.

Can't say what benefit I'm seeing. I do however have sweet smelling green poo. Next time I'll be looking for something tested and approved by Mr. Hankey.

Powders might be better than pills. Absorption, bioavailabily and active enzymes are still the main issues with all supplements. Nothing beats whole fresh food.